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EV terminology

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

A

AC

Alternating Current

Alternating Current – An electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals.

amp

Unit of electric current.

B

BEV

Battery Electric Vehicle

Battery Electric Vehicle- A 100% battery-powered Electric Vehicle.

C

Charging

Refilling

Refilling an electric car’s battery with electricity.

Charging Point

The location

The location where electric vehicles can be plugged in and charged, whether at home, work or in a public accessible location.

Charging Station

infrastructure

An element of infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, also known as an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment).

Connector

A device

A device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle allowing it to charge.

CHAdeMO Plug

Charging system

This quick charging system allows for charging capacities up to 50 kW at appropriate public charging stations. The following manufacturers offer electric cars which are compatible with... the CHAdeMO plug: BD Otomotive, Citroën, Honda, Kia, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Subaru, Tesla (with adaptor), and Toyota.

D

DC

Direct Current

Direct Current – An electric current of constant direction.

DC Fast Charging

Electric charge

The fastest (high powered) way to charge electric vehicles quickly with an electrical output ranging from 50kW – 120kw.This will fully charge an average electric car in 30 to 40 minutes.

E

EV

Electric Vehicle

Electric Vehicle - Any vehicle that uses electric motors, either in full or in part, as propulsion.

EVSE

Electric Vehicle

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A safety protocol that enables two-way communication between a charging station and electric vehicle. Basically, it controls the safe current flow between the charger and your EV.

EREV

Extended-Range

Extended-Range Electric Vehicle. Although the electric motor of a PHEV always drives the wheels, EREVs feature an auxiliary power unit, usually an internal combustion engine, that acts as a generator to recharge the battery when it runs out.

F

FCEV

Fuel Cell

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle – A vehicle that uses a fuel cell, usually hydrogen-based, to generate electricity that runs an on-board motor.

H

HEV

Electric Vehicle

Hybrid Electric Vehicle - A car that integrates a small battery and an electric motor to enhance the efficiency of the engine. The battery’s charge is maintained by the ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) engine — it cannot be charged by plugging into an electrical supply. Hybrids offer greater fuel economy than a traditional ICE, but can only travel very short distances on electric power only.

I

Incentives

Incentives

Many governments offer incentives to encourage buyers to choose an electric car. Incentives for EVs can include grants towards the purchase price, free parking, zero road tax, low company car tax and exemption from city emissions and congestion charges.

ICE

Engine

Internal Combustion Engine –The technical name for the gas-powered engine in most cars, SUVs, and trucks. It generates power by igniting an air-fuel mixture within a cylinder that forces down a piston. The number of cylinders in most modern engines varies from three all the way up to twelve, and engines can be enhanced with forced induction devices, called turbochargers and superchargers, that force more air into a cylinder to generate extra power. The byproduct of this power generation, however, are harmful emissions like hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2).

K

kWh

Kilowatt-hour

Kilowatt-hour - A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred or expended in one hour by one kilowatt of power. Electric car battery size is measured in kilowatt-hours, so think of it as the electric car's equivalent of gallons of fuel in a gas tank.

L

Lithium-Ion Battery

current standard

This is the current standard in electric vehicle batteries, offering good energy density, power, and fast charging ability. The life of a lithium-ion battery is estimated to be the same as the life of the car (eight to ten years). Of course, ‘end of life’ here does not mean a car or its batteries won’t work – after 10 years a lithium-ion battery is expected to be 80% still efficient, so they will still be usable – replacement will be a choice, not a requirement.

Level 1 Charging (Slow)

AC

On-site circuit/outlet delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30 amps, which usually comes with the EV. The output to the vehicle is AC current. Cord sets provide a way of charging while at home or away on a trip where a quicker-charging Level 2 unit is not available. The low power flow leads to long recharge times. Due to this long recharge time, a large majority of electric vehicle owners will install and use a higher power Level 2 unit.

Level 2 Charging (Fast)

electric dryer

Level 2 supplies 240V, like what an electric dryer or oven uses. It goes through a box and a cord that improves safety by waiting to send power to the plug until it’s plugged into an EV.

P

PHEV

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle - A type of car that is configured like a traditional hybrid, but with a bigger battery pack that can be charged by plugging into an EVSE. PHEVs, as they are known, offer the chance to make short journeys on cheap, zero-tailpipe-emission electricity, but also enable long journeys.

Pure Electric

A vehicle powered solely by electric motors using power provided by on-board batteries.

R

Range

The distance you can travel on pure electric power before the battery requires a recharge.

Range Anxiety

This refers to the anxious feeling of operating an electric vehicle with the fear of running out of battery charge while driving.

Regenerative Braking

An energy recovery system used in most electric vehicles that can help charge the battery while the car is slowing down. Typically the electric motor acts as the generator, so power can flow both ways between it and the battery. ‘Regen’ helps extend the range, while the process also helps slow the vehicle in a similar way to engine braking in an ICE powered car.

S

SAE-J1772

The North American standard

The North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles. The SAE standard covers the general physical, electrical, functional, and performance requirements to facilitate conductive charging of EV/PHEV vehicles.

SAE COMBO (CCS)

enhanced version of the plug

The CCS plug is an enhanced version of the type 2 plug, with two additional power contacts for the purposes of quick charging, and supports AC and DC charging power levels (alternating and direct current charging power levels) of up to 170 kW. In practice, the value is usually around 50 kW.

T

Type 1 Plug

The type 1 plug is a single-phase plug that allows for charging power levels of up to 7.4 kW (230 V, 32 A).

Type 2 Plug

Triple-phase plug. In private spaces, charging power levels of up to 22 kW are common, while charging power levels of up to 43 kW (400 V, 63 A, AC) can be used at public charging stations. Most public charging stations are equipped with a type 2 socket. All mode 3 charging cables can be used with this, and electric cars can be charged with both type 1 and type 2 plugs. All mode 3 cables on the sides of charging stations have so-called Mennekes plugs (type 2).

Tesla Supercharger

For its supercharger, Tesla uses a modified version of the type 2 Mennekes plug. This allows for the Model S to recharge to 80% within 30 minutes.

Torque

The twisting force

The twisting force that causes rotation. In cars, torque rules and is the major factor in a car’s accelerative ability. Petrol and diesel engines deliver torque over a curve as RPM increases, meaning they have peak power at a given RPM. Electric motors, on the other hand, deliver maximum torque from zero revs, meaning acceleration from standstill can be phenomenal.

U

Utility Rate (TOU)

Utility rates vary according to high- and low-peak use hours. Thus the rate charged to an EV customer is based not only on the total electricity used, but also upon the time of day the energy was drawn.

V

Level 1 Charging (Slow)

On-site circuit/outlet delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30 amps, which usually comes with the EV. The output to the vehicle is AC current. Cord sets provide a way of charging while at home or away on a trip where a quicker-charging Level 2 unit is not available. The low power flow leads to long recharge times. Due to this long recharge time, a large majority of electric vehicle owners will install and use a higher power Level 2 unit.

Level 2 Charging (Fast)

Level 2 supplies 240V, like what an electric dryer or oven uses. It goes through a box and a cord that improves safety by waiting to send power to the plug until it’s plugged into an EV.

Z

ZEV

Zero Emission Vehicle

Zero Emission Vehicle – A vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to health and the environment include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. A popular example of a ZEV is a Tesla Model S.

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